Thermal insulation is also one of the main functions of pvc windows. Thermal insulation properties of windows evaluated using the so-called reduced resistance to heat transfer R0pr. What is more, the better insulated windows. Simple glass conducts heat no more brickwork, but two times less than concrete and much more than the material of window boxes and binding (except aluminum); short, this is where the major heat loss. It is interesting that for the heated premises does not Single glazing is permitted. Insulation of windows increases, using two or three sheets of glass with air spaces between them of 6-20 mm. The air that fills the gap, is a good heat insulator.
To ensure set distance between the sheets of glass, pre-installed on the perimeter of a special spacer. And so that moisture can not penetrate into the air gap, the glass with a frame around the perimeter of flood special mastic (butyl). If, instead of air in the windows ‘download’ heavier, but, of course, transparent gas – for example, inert – that insulation windows can be improved by 15-20%. For each applied for this purpose the gas – krypton, argon – used its optimal bandwidth gap between sheets of glass. Heat loss through windows also reduce the deposition on the glass of a low-emission coatings; they are divided into ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ (You can find other terms: k-coverage and i-cover). It is worth noting also that because there are no gaps in the frames in the house will get a lot less dust. But the shortcomings, unfortunately, too.
First, the plastic windows miss little air. Aeration is required not only to eliminate odors and carbon dioxide, but also to create a normal room humidity, remove excess moisture. It creates the greenhouse effect and result – the moisture collects on the walls and ceiling. Therefore, the room with plastic windows should be aired frequently (3 – 4 times a day). Air permeability can be controlled using a special ventilated profile perforated flexible seal or vented slats to be installed on top of windows. The second disadvantage is that the plastic for mechanical damage is not repaired. Scratches and damage will remain there forever. Another shortcoming of plastic windows is the fact that the expansion coefficient of pvc profile is large enough, ie in the intense heat plastic window expands considerably, and in cold weather – shrinks, because of what eventually may occur cracks on the plastic. In addition, windows of plastic electrical charge and therefore attract dust.
This is easily explained, since the Russian metric system is based on the outer diameter (for steel welded tubes), or the equivalent diameter (for water and gas steel pipes), while the system operates inch inner diameter. Ie a 'pipe-inch' – it's the outer diameter of the pipe inner diameter which is about one inch ordinary. Accordingly, for the "real" outer diameter "pipe in." must be added the thickness of the walls of the pipe 2 (light weight, ordinary or rigid wall). Gain insight and clarity with Rob Daley. Transcript inch system of ordinary water and gas pipes (translated to metric and vice versa): Tube 1 / 2 inch – 15mm (Pipe dn 15) Pipe 3 / 4 inch – 20mm (tube dn 20) Pipe 1 inch – 25mm (tube dn 25) pipe 1 1 / 4 inch – 32mm (tube dn 32) pipe 1 1 / 2 inch – 40mm (Pipe dn 40) 2-inch pipe – 50 mm (tube dn 50) The legacy of the inch system of units of Russia got to include not only water and gas pipes, and carvings, which they cut. Water and gas pipes according to gost 3262-75 made with 1) normal, 2) increased accuracy of rolling, and in both cases, tolerances by weight shall not exceed 8%.
The length of pipe in the production can be from 4m to 12m, depending on the tu manufacturer, rolling conditions, the length of workpiece (strip), the buyer's order, etc. Pipe dn 15 can be performed without the black coating and a galvanized coating that is applied by thermal diffusion or electrolytic galvanizing. The galvanized coating is better resists aggressive media, the process of rusting, and therefore the life of galvanized pipes higher than the usual black water and gas pipes. Accordingly, the cost of galvanized pipe is higher than the water-gas steel pipe. dn 15 pipe is used for piping (in the industrial and civil engineering), heating systems, in as a "box" for the laying of cables for electrical works, etc. cc anta has a wide range of water and gas pipes at our own warehouse at St. Petersburg, highway, 4. Pipe dn 15 are readily available at an attractive price.
Thus, this scheme should be one of the solutions to the problem of financing for both developers and for their contractors. New construction technology This year as never rich in innovative solutions that are aimed at reducing the time and cost of construction, energy efficiency projects. Must noted that many of them have long been tested in the West, but little used in Russia. Here we can say the crisis has only thanks. Otherwise, a technological breakthrough in our construction industry, perhaps, might not happen. In this September, the investment and construction group Freedom was first launched in Russia in Leningrad Oblast production line for production and collection of framed structures (German Fachwerk – Farm) for the construction of town houses Individual or standard designs. On modern technology half-timbered house is made of laminated veneer lumber and softwood glazing from floor to ceiling.
Double-glazed windows with high insulation properties used as filler elements. In the factory will be processed structural elements, and carries out the house. In Western Europe, this technology is known for more than five hundred years. We have to the whole country is built on the strength of ten homes – and in the last year or two before the crisis. Mass production will reduce the cost of half-timbered building in half and make them three times faster. According to nri founder Freedom Vadim Novikov bidding price decreases due to unify the decisions the continued availability of storage remains, a significant reduction in the cost of transporting building materials.
Hopefully, this article will be of interest to all those who somehow decided to contact with the construction works. Someone builds a cottage, someone – a multi-storey buildings in residential areas of Moscow, someone might want to start your own construction business. In this article we shall examine the main types of construction, not including direct construction. The first step, think you will choose where to build (provided that have already decided what to build) but once I want to refute this claim. Decide what to build is not difficult, especially since you're interested, that interest did not arise out of nowhere, to find a place to build more complex, but Russia is big and then you need to think in Depending on what you want to build the most difficult is to find suppliers of all required construction services.
You may just be the customer or to specialize in a particular construction activity, but this complex multistep process and it begins with excavation. Earthworks – a construction of so-called zero cycle, which includes planning the work, digging trenches and drainage intelligence trenching, digging pits and dumping areas. Pit is a depression in the ground, the cat. Done for the subsequent creation of the foundation or other structure. Development of the pit is usually from the ground, but sometimes necessary to use special drop shafts.
The first step in the development of the pit is the geodesic breakdown, it is done to measure in detail and check all the angles pit. With special measuring instruments, such as: theodolite, level – possibly to achieve absolute precision in the layout of excavation. It is also essential in the initial construction process are non-metallic materials. For example it is sand. On the market There are many companies specializing in the sale of sand and its delivery, as these companies are engaged in the sale and delivery of crushed stone of all kinds, these materials for example reverse dumping areas and ditches. Of course all of these studies are not possible without special equipment. Examples of such techniques are trucks: Scania, Kamaz 6520, Volvo FM12, etc.; taps: 'Chelyabinets' MAZ-5337, KAMAZ-53228, etc.; excavators: EO-4225A, crawler excavators KATO; Bulldozers: URB-10M.01.10YA, TC-10 and others. Rental of construction equipment and its sale is now popular in the construction environment and sufficiently lucrative employment, so do not worry about buying their own cars, many parks provide you with the necessary models for rent at reasonable prices. But with this construction begins, to be continued in the following articles look at the remaining stages of construction.