North American

This theory had its defending greaters in Woods (1913), Bernard (1926), Bird (1940), and Stogdill (1948), being more recently reopened for Bennis (1989) and Kirkpatric and Locke (1991). The Theory of the Traces examines common aspects shown by great leaders it synthecizes and them in categories of traces by means of which the true leaders can be identified. According to Stogdill (1948), the traces more comumente on to the leadership concept would be: (1) intelligence, (2) attention, (3) responsibility, (4) initiative, (5) persistence, (6) autoconfiana and (7) sociability. In 1959, Mann lead similar studies to the ones of Stogdill, and elaborated its proper list, that inclua intelligence, masculinidade, adjustment, dominncia, extroverso, and conservadorismo. Its studies would be confirmed in 1986 for Lord and others, that had investigated the characteristics of leaders which the led ones react more strong. Its list detached intelligence, masculinidade and dominncia as the traces most important of leaders.

In as a study, dated of 1974, Stogdill perfected leadership traces, suggesting then the following characteristics as typical of the true leaders: (1) impulse to lead; (2) vigor and persistence in reaching goals; (3) empreendedorismo and originalidade in the resolution of problems; (4) initiative in social situations; (5) autoconfiana and sense of personal identity; (6) disposal to accept the consequncias of its decisions and action; (7) easiness to absorb estresse interpersonal; (8) disposal to tolerate frustrations and delays; (9) ability to influence the behavior of other people; (10) capacity to structuralize systems of social interaction that serve the desired objectives. Kouzes and Posner (1987) had identified four main traces of leaders after to ask the 7,500 North American administrators what they more admired in its leaders: honesty (chosen for 87% of the respondents); ability (74% of the respondents); visionary (67%); inspired (61%). In 1989, after to observe 90 administrators, Bennis (1989) identified four abilities of those most succeeded: (1) focus administration? a combination of vision and personal commitment that attracts and inspires the other people of a team; (2) administration of meaning? a bonanza capacity of communication capable to line up the people around its objectives; (3) reliable administration? with a good central intention, good administrators gain the confidence of its subordinate; (4) personal administration? ability to learn with its proper errors and to nourish its personal talentos, rejecting the imperfection idea, but yes accepting errors as learning chances.

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